Jod

(I, I2, lat. Iodum)

Jod je esencijalni mikroelement za čoveka. Prosečna odrasla osoba sadrži između 20 i 50 miligrama joda. Oko 60% joda se nalazi u tiroidnoj žlezdi koja se nalazi u osnovi vrata. Ostatak joda se nalazi u tiroidnim hormonima u krvi, ovarijumu i mišićima. Distribucija joda u svetu veoma varira, tako da hrana koja raste u oblastima sa malom koncentracijom joda ne sadrži dovoljno ovog mikronutrijenta. Ove oblasti se nalaze u Centralnoj Americi, delovima Kine, kontinentalnoj Evropi, Rusiji i Južnoj Americi.

Biološka uloga

Jod je komponenta tiroidnih hormona trijodotironina i tiroksina koji određuju brzinu metabolizma u organizmu. Ovo se odnosi na pretvaranje hrane u energiju u organizmu, a ujedno i način korišćenja te energije.

Tiroidni hormoni su neophodni za rast i razvoj svih organa, posebno mozga, reproduktivnih organa, nervnog sistema, kostiju, kože, kose, noktiju i zuba. Tiroidna žlezda je uključena u proces proizvodnje proteina, sintezu holesterola, resorpciju ugljenih hidrata i pretvaranje karotena u vitamin A.

Tiroksin je značajan za regulisanje telesne mase.

Metabolizam

Jod se resorbuje u tankom crevu, a višak se odstranjuje urinom.

Prirodni izvori

Dobri izvori joda je povrće koje raste na zemljištu bogatom jodom. Zatim tu spadaju luk, aronija, mleko i mlečni proizvodi, morska riba i plodovi mora.

Natrijum- ili kalijum jodid se dodaje soli u mnogim zemljama.

Sadržaj joda u prehrambenim proizvodima

Namirnicamikrograma na 100 grama namirnice
Skuša170
Školjke120
Bakalar110
Dimljena riba71,3
Jogurt63,3
Jaja52,9
Sir45
Škampi41,3
Haringa32
Pastrmka16
Mleko15,4
Bubrezi15,3
Jetra14,7
Tunjevina14
Pivo8

Poremećaji

Nedostatak

Nedostatak joda u organizmu dovodi do niza različitih poremećaja kao što su hipotiroidizam, gušavost i kretenizam. Ukoliko se u organizam dnevno unosi manje od 50 µg dolazi do nedostatka joda.

Kada se skladišta joda u organizmu isprazne tiroidna žlezda koja se nalazi u vratu dolazi pod uticaj hipofize, pri čemu se povećava njena aktivnost i počinje da se uvećava. Ovaj otok se naziva gušavost. Drugi simptomi hipotiroidizma uključuju zamor, apatiju, dremljivost, ostetljivost na hladnoću, letargiju, mišićnu slabost, uvećavanje telesne mase i koža postaje grublja. Mlade osobe koje žive na područjima gde je prisutan nedostatak joda su izloženi riziku od pojave gušavosti.

Nedostatak joda je značajan svetski problem ali je relativno redak u industrijskim zemljama zbog jodiranja soli koja se koristi u prehrani. Osobe koje u organizam unose previše hrane koja sprečava iskoristljivost joda oboljevaju od gušavosti. Ova hrana uključuje sirovi kupus, kelj, repa, kikiriki, soja, karfiol. Neki lekovi, kao što su disulfiram, tiouracil, tiourea i sulfonamid takođe mogu inhibirati tiroidnu žlezdu i dovode do nedostatka joda u organizmu.

Smanjenje količine soli koja se unosi u organizam u kombinaciji sa većim unosom industrijski pripremane hrane gde se koristi mala količina jodirani soli može takođe dovesti do nedovoljne količine joda u organizmu.

Hormoni štitne žlezde potrebni su i tokom trudnoće zbog normalnog nervnog razvoja ploda. Ukoliko se kod žena u trudnoći javi nedostatak joda povećava se rizik od pobačaja i mrtvo rođenog deteta. Ukoliko se odojče ipak rodi u terminu može doći do nepovratne mentalne retardacije. Ovo je poznato kao (kretenizam) i glavni je razlog preventivnih mera u područjima sa niskim sadržajem joda.

Ukoliko je kod deteta prisutan umeren nedostatak joda onda se javljaju slabije umne sposobnosti i slaba motivacija. Fetus u razvoju, novorođenče i mala deca su najosetljiviji na ishranu u kojoj nema dovoljno joda i zato tretman pre začeća ili u ranoj fazi trudnoće je esencijalan za zaštitu od nepovratnih oštećenja. Majčino mleko sadrži više joda od adaptiranog mleka i stoga ukoliko se dete rodi pre vremena i hrani adaptiranim mlekom izloženo je većem riziku od nedostatka joda.

Nedostatak joda igra važnu ulogu i u fibrocističnom oboljenju dojke. Hipotiroidizam i nedostatak joda povećavaju rizik od dobijanja kancera dojke.

Toksičnost

Simptomi akutnog trovanja resorbovanog joda (pre nego jodida) nastaju zbog njegovog korozivnog efekta na gastrointestinalni trakt i uključuju povraćanje, bolove u stomaku i dijareju. Drugi simptomi mogu biti i metalni ukus u ustima, bolovi u zubima, desnima i usnama kao i teške glavobolje. Na kraju i bubrezi prestaju da proizvode urin. Letalna doza joda je 2-3 grama. Ukoliko se uoče simptomi viška joda neophodno ih je tretirati sa velikim količinama mleka, rastvorom skroba i 1%-im rastvorom kalijum-tiosulfata.

Toksični efekti jodida (za razliku od joda) su retki i mogu da izazovu smanjenje sekrecije tiroidnog hormona, akne, i upalu pljuvačnih žlezda pri količinama od preko 1500 µg. Dnevni unos joda ne bi trebalo da bude iznad 1000 µg dnevno. Toksični efekti mogu nastati od visokih unosa koji se mogu javiti pri medicinskim tretmanima. Pacijenti mogu postati preosetljivi pri dužem unosu.

Preporučene dnevne količine

Trudnice i žene u laktaciji: 175 – 200 mikrograma
Odrasle osobe: 150 mikrograma

Upotreba u medicini

Jod se u medicini primenjuje za lečenje poremećaja koji nastaju usled nedovoljne količine joda. Najčešće se jod dodaje u obliku jodirane soli ili kao jodizovana uljana injekcija.

Neke studije su pokazale da tretman jodom može smanjiti simptome fibrocističnog poremećaja dojke.

Jod je dobar antiseptik i može se koristiti za uništavanje bakterija i gljivica. Zato se koristi za tuširanje širokog spektra mikroorganizama uključujući kandidu i hlamidiju. Preterani unos joda nije dobar jer može da smanji tiroidnu funkciju.

Jod u obliku tableta se može koristiti za dezinfekciju vode.

Pri nuklearnim nezgodama dolazi do oslobađanja radioaktivnog joda u atmosferu. Ovaj radioaktivni jod koristi tiroidna žlezda što može izazvati pojavu kancera. Tretman sa jodom može da deluje preventivno na unos radioaktivnog joda u organizmu.

164 мишљења на “Jod

  1. หน้าโทรม

    Hey there! I could have sworn I’ve been to this blog before but after checking through some of the post I realized it’s new to me. Anyhow, I’m definitely delighted I found it and I’ll be bookmarking and checking back often!

  2. lagoa misteriosa

    I have been exploring for a little bit for any high-quality articles or blog posts on this sort of area . Exploring in Yahoo I at last stumbled upon this web site. Reading this information So i am happy to convey that I’ve an incredibly good uncanny feeling I discovered just what I needed. I most certainly will make certain to do not forget this site and give it a glance regularly.

  3. Firstplay88

    Hi! I just wanted to ask if you ever have any problems with hackers? My last blog (wordpress) was hacked and I ended up losing many months of hard work due to no back up. Do you have any solutions to stop hackers?

  4. Firstplay88

    I just couldn’t go away your website before suggesting that I actually enjoyed the usual info a person supply to your guests? Is gonna be again often to check up on new posts

  5. Firstplay88

    I was recommended this web site by my cousin. I’m not sure whether this post is written by him as no one else know such detailed about my problem. You’re incredible! Thanks!

  6. xin gaming slot

    I’ve been exploring for a little for any high quality articles or blog posts in this kind of area . Exploring in Yahoo I eventually stumbled upon this site. Studying this information So i am happy to show that I have a very just right uncanny feeling I came upon exactly what I needed. I most for sure will make sure to do not overlook this web site and give it a glance on a relentless basis.

  7. hire a hacker

    Great blog here! Also your website loads up very fast! What web host are you using? Can I get your affiliate link to your host? I wish my website loaded up as fast as yours lol

  8. pisang777

    There are some interesting points in time in this article however I don’t know if I see all of them middle to heart. There is some validity however I will take maintain opinion till I look into it further. Good article , thanks and we would like extra! Added to FeedBurner as nicely

  9. rtp slot anti rungkat

    Hello there! This is my first comment here so I just wanted to give a quick shout out and say I really enjoy reading through your articles. Can you recommend any other blogs/websites/forums that go over the same subjects? Thanks!

  10. slot hoki

    Wow, awesome blog layout! How long have you been blogging for? you make blogging look easy. The overall look of your web site is fantastic, let alone the content!

  11. Rtp Slot Maxwin

    Good site! I really love how it is simple on my eyes and the data are well written. I am wondering how I might be notified when a new post has been made. I have subscribed to your RSS feed which must do the trick! Have a nice day!

  12. daftar slot online

    I like what you guys are up too. Such intelligent work and reporting! Carry on the superb works guys I have incorporated you guys to my blogroll. I think it will improve the value of my website 🙂

  13. rtp slot tertinggi hari ini

    Amazing blog! Do you have any suggestions for aspiring writers? I’m hoping to start my own blog soon but I’m a little lost on everything. Would you propose starting with a free platform like WordPress or go for a paid option? There are so many choices out there that I’m totally overwhelmed .. Any suggestions? Many thanks!

  14. mega casino

    Thank you for sharing superb informations. Your web-site is very cool. I am impressed by the details that you?¦ve on this blog. It reveals how nicely you understand this subject. Bookmarked this website page, will come back for more articles. You, my pal, ROCK! I found just the information I already searched everywhere and simply couldn’t come across. What a great web site.

  15. Link Alternatif Betwing88

    Hiya, I’m really glad I have found this information. Today bloggers publish only about gossips and net and this is really frustrating. A good web site with interesting content, that is what I need. Thank you for keeping this site, I will be visiting it. Do you do newsletters? Cant find it.

  16. slot terbaik

    I have been browsing on-line greater than 3 hours as of late, yet I by no means discovered any interesting article like yours. It is pretty price enough for me. In my view, if all web owners and bloggers made just right content as you did, the internet will likely be much more helpful than ever before. „Nothing will come of nothing.“ by William Shakespeare.

  17. slot online

    Wonderful beat ! I wish to apprentice while you amend your site, how can i subscribe for a blog web site? The account helped me a applicable deal. I were tiny bit familiar of this your broadcast offered vivid transparent idea

  18. Backlinks Software

    Backlinks generator software helping you to generate over 12 million backlinks for any link in minutes. Easy to operate and provide you with full report of all created backlinks. Ideal for personal use or start your own online business.

  19. link gacor

    Thanks for every other informative site. The place else may I get that kind of info written in such an ideal manner? I’ve a mission that I am simply now working on, and I’ve been on the look out for such info.

  20. daftar slot online

    Oh my goodness! a tremendous article dude. Thank you However I’m experiencing situation with ur rss . Don’t know why Unable to subscribe to it. Is there anyone getting equivalent rss downside? Anyone who knows kindly respond. Thnkx

  21. genuine hackers for hire

    Thanks for sharing superb informations. Your website is very cool. I’m impressed by the details that you¦ve on this blog. It reveals how nicely you understand this subject. Bookmarked this web page, will come back for extra articles. You, my pal, ROCK! I found simply the information I already searched all over the place and simply could not come across. What a great site.

  22. ethical hackers for hire

    I have been exploring for a little bit for any high quality articles or weblog posts in this kind of area . Exploring in Yahoo I at last stumbled upon this website. Studying this information So i’m happy to convey that I have a very excellent uncanny feeling I found out exactly what I needed. I most surely will make sure to don’t disregard this website and provides it a glance on a constant basis.

  23. verse for today

    I do trust all of the concepts you have introduced on your post. They are very convincing and will definitely work. Still, the posts are very brief for novices. May just you please prolong them a little from next time? Thanks for the post.

  24. water booster pump

    Thanks for every other great post. The place else could anybody get that type of info in such an ideal manner of writing? I have a presentation subsequent week, and I am on the look for such info.

  25. serviços

    Hi my friend! I want to say that this article is amazing, great written and come with approximately all vital infos. I’d like to look more posts like this.

  26. vdp events

    I’ll immediately grab your rss as I can’t find your email subscription link or e-newsletter service. Do you have any? Kindly let me know in order that I could subscribe. Thanks.

  27. Betwing88

    You really make it seem really easy with your presentation but I in finding this topic to be really one thing that I think I’d by no means understand. It seems too complicated and extremely extensive for me. I’m looking forward on your subsequent submit, I’ll try to get the dangle of it!

  28. link gacor thailand

    Normally I do not read post on blogs, but I would like to say that this write-up very forced me to try and do it! Your writing style has been amazed me. Thanks, quite nice article.

  29. private chauffeur near me

    Nice post. I learn something more challenging on different blogs everyday. It will always be stimulating to read content from other writers and practice a little something from their store. I’d prefer to use some with the content on my blog whether you don’t mind. Natually I’ll give you a link on your web blog. Thanks for sharing.

  30. luxury car rental kl

    Hello would you mind letting me know which hosting company you’re working with? I’ve loaded your blog in 3 completely different internet browsers and I must say this blog loads a lot faster then most. Can you suggest a good web hosting provider at a honest price? Kudos, I appreciate it!

  31. Cara Dapat Maxwin Slot Gacor

    Thanx for the effort, keep up the good work Great work, I am going to start a small Blog Engine course work using your site I hope you enjoy blogging with the popular BlogEngine.net.Thethoughts you express are really awesome. Hope you will right some more posts.

  32. mind

    I truly wanted to type a brief word so as to thank you for all the awesome ways you are posting on this site. My prolonged internet lookup has now been honored with high-quality facts and strategies to talk about with my best friends. I would assert that most of us website visitors actually are quite fortunate to dwell in a wonderful place with so many marvellous professionals with very helpful advice. I feel very much fortunate to have discovered the weblog and look forward to so many more cool minutes reading here. Thanks once again for everything.

  33. rooms are designed

    Have you ever considered about adding a little bit more than just your articles? I mean, what you say is important and all. Nevertheless think about if you added some great photos or video clips to give your posts more, „pop“! Your content is excellent but with images and videos, this blog could undeniably be one of the very best in its niche. Amazing blog!

  34. software akuntansi

    Hi, i think that i saw you visited my blog thus i came to “return the favor”.I’m attempting to find things to enhance my site!I suppose its ok to use a few of your ideas!!

  35. Top Up Game Higgs Domino Island

    Needed to write you this very small word just to say thanks once again about the gorgeous ideas you have featured at this time. This is strangely open-handed of people like you giving unreservedly what exactly many individuals would have sold for an electronic book to help with making some cash for their own end, chiefly considering that you might well have done it if you wanted. These ideas additionally worked as the easy way to recognize that some people have a similar interest the same as my very own to see a great deal more with reference to this matter. I believe there are numerous more pleasant instances ahead for those who scan your blog.

  36. water booster pump

    I really like your writing style, great information, regards for putting up :D. „Every moment of one’s existence one is growing into more or retreating into less.“ by Norman Mailer.

  37. Pet Chronicles

    Enjoyed studying this, very good stuff, thankyou. „It is well to remember that the entire universe, with one trifling exception, is composed of others.“ by John Andrew Holmes.

  38. Cuevana 3

    What i don’t understood is actually how you are not really much more well-liked than you may be now. You are very intelligent. You realize thus considerably relating to this subject, produced me personally consider it from a lot of varied angles. Its like women and men aren’t fascinated unless it’s one thing to accomplish with Lady gaga! Your own stuffs excellent. Always maintain it up!

  39. jual emas antam pekanbaru

    certainly like your web site but you need to check the spelling on several of your posts. Several of them are rife with spelling problems and I find it very troublesome to tell the truth nevertheless I’ll certainly come back again.

  40. Download Drama korea Sub Indo

    I want to express my appreciation to you just for rescuing me from such a incident. Because of browsing throughout the search engines and meeting suggestions that were not productive, I was thinking my life was done. Being alive without the presence of approaches to the difficulties you have resolved by way of the report is a serious case, as well as the kind which may have badly affected my career if I hadn’t encountered the blog. That skills and kindness in maneuvering every item was helpful. I’m not sure what I would’ve done if I had not encountered such a step like this. I can at this time relish my future. Thanks so much for the specialized and effective guide. I will not hesitate to endorse the blog to any person who would need direction about this subject.

  41. airport transfer malaysia

    Good – I should certainly pronounce, impressed with your site. I had no trouble navigating through all tabs as well as related info ended up being truly simple to do to access. I recently found what I hoped for before you know it in the least. Quite unusual. Is likely to appreciate it for those who add forums or anything, site theme . a tones way for your client to communicate. Excellent task.

  42. car workshop

    Hi, just required you to know I he added your site to my Google bookmarks due to your layout. But seriously, I believe your internet site has 1 in the freshest theme I??ve came across. It extremely helps make reading your blog significantly easier.

  43. chauffeur driver

    I’m often to blogging and i really appreciate your content. The article has actually peaks my interest. I am going to bookmark your site and keep checking for brand spanking new information.

  44. Daftar hoki777

    I think this is among the most significant info for me. And i am glad reading your article. But wanna remark on few general things, The web site style is great, the articles is really great : D. Good job, cheers

  45. home spray

    Aw, this was a really nice post. In idea I want to put in writing like this additionally – taking time and precise effort to make a very good article… however what can I say… I procrastinate alot and under no circumstances appear to get something done.

  46. mahjong303

    It is actually a great and useful piece of info. I am glad that you just shared this helpful info with us. Please stay us up to date like this. Thank you for sharing.

  47. hire a hacker for whatsapp

    Hello, Neat post. There is a problem along with your website in internet explorer, might check this… IE nonetheless is the marketplace leader and a big portion of folks will miss your wonderful writing because of this problem.

  48. Daftar Kedokteran 2023

    Hi there, simply became aware of your blog via Google, and located that it is really informative. I am gonna watch out for brussels. I will be grateful should you continue this in future. A lot of people might be benefited from your writing. Cheers!

  49. Kampus berprestasi

    Hey there! I know this is kinda off topic nevertheless I’d figured I’d ask. Would you be interested in trading links or maybe guest authoring a blog post or vice-versa? My website goes over a lot of the same topics as yours and I think we could greatly benefit from each other. If you might be interested feel free to shoot me an e-mail. I look forward to hearing from you! Terrific blog by the way!

  50. international school in kl

    I’ve been surfing online more than 3 hours today, yet I never found any interesting article like yours. It is pretty worth enough for me. Personally, if all web owners and bloggers made good content as you did, the net will be much more useful than ever before.

  51. techtrics auto

    naturally like your web-site but you have to test the spelling on several of your posts. Several of them are rife with spelling issues and I find it very troublesome to inform the reality on the other hand I will certainly come again again.

  52. Hamka Muda

    I get pleasure from, cause I discovered just what I was having a look for. You have ended my four day lengthy hunt! God Bless you man. Have a nice day. Bye

  53. slot gacor pragmatic

    I’m really impressed with your writing skills as well as with the layout on your blog. Is this a paid theme or did you customize it yourself? Anyway keep up the nice quality writing, it’s rare to see a nice blog like this one these days..

  54. Sultan88

    I¦ve read some good stuff here. Certainly price bookmarking for revisiting. I wonder how so much effort you set to create this type of excellent informative website.

  55. slot deposit 5000

    Excellent post. I was checking constantly this blog and I’m impressed! Extremely useful information particularly the last part 🙂 I care for such info much. I was looking for this particular info for a long time. Thank you and good luck.

  56. NXP Semiconductors

    It’s a pity you don’t have a donate button! I’d without a doubt donate to this fantastic blog! I suppose for now i’ll settle for bookmarking and adding your RSS feed to my Google account. I look forward to brand new updates and will share this website with my Facebook group. Chat soon!

  57. toto macau

    I used to be suggested this blog by way of my cousin. I’m not sure whether or not this put up is written by way of him as no one else recognize such distinctive about my trouble. You’re incredible! Thanks!

Оставите одговор

Ваша адреса е-поште неће бити објављена. Неопходна поља су означена *