Vitamin K

(filohinon, antihemoragični vitamin, vitamin koagulacije, fitomenadion)

Vitamin K je prvi otkrio H. Dam u Danskoj pri ispitivanju metabolizma holesterola kod pilića hranjenih hranom siromašnom mašću. Dam je tada primetio krvarenja kože i mišića, koja su često bila povezana sa sprečavanjem zgrušavanja krvi. On je već tada izrazio mišljenje, da se tu verovatno radi o bolesti usled nedostatka vitamina.

Kasnije, 1935. godine, E. A. Doisy i njegovi saradnici su u Americi izolovali ovaj vitamin i odredili njegovu strukturu.

Ovo je poslednji otkriveni i karakterisani vitamin, koji je rastvoran u mastima.

Fizičke i hemijske osobine

Pri izučavanju vitamina K, utvrđeno je, da je po hemijskoj strukturi sličan naftohinonu. Postoje dva glavna oblika ovog vitamina i to vitamin K1 (filohinon, fitomenadion, fitonadion) i K2 (menahinon).

Vitamin K1 je uljasta tečnost, koja ključa na 20°C. Vrlo je osetljiv na svetlost i brzo se razgrađuje pod dejstvom ultraljubičastog zračenja.

Vitamin K2 je kristalna supstanca, koja se topi na temperaturi od 50 do 52°C

Kasnije je veštački sintetisan i vitamin K3 (menadion, kanon, kapaksin, tilokinon).

Vitaminu K škode pre svega X-zraci, radijacija, aspirin, zagađenost vazduha, mineralna ulja. U zamrznutim namirnicama se gubi aktivnost ovog vitamina.

Vitamin K1
Vitamin K2
Vitamin K3

Biološka uloga

Biološki je najaktivniji vitamin K1. Biohemijska funkcija ovog vitamina se ogleda u mehanizmu koagulacije krvi. Utvrđeno je naime, da je vitamin K neophodan za normalno građenje proteina plazme krvi – protrombina, koji se javlja kao neaktivan prekursor trombina. Trombin pretvara fibrinogen krvi u fibrin, stvaraju’i ugrušak. U ovom procesu su neophodni i joni kalcijuma. Vitamin K je potreban za održavanje normalnih koncentracija faktora koagulacije krvi II, VII, IX, i X, koji se svi sintetišu u jetri. Svi ovi faktori se u jetri sintetišu u neaktivnoj formi, i njihovo pretvaranje u aktivnu formu zavisi od vitamina K.

Za apsorpciju vitamina K u crevima potrebna je normalna apsorpcija masti.

Pošto vitamin K proizvode mnogi mikroorganizmi i većina biljaka, a otkriven je u tkivima svih organizama, postavlja se i pitanje, da li ima još neko drugo dejstvo sem zgrušavanja krvi. Neki podaci pokazuju, da bi mogao funkcionisati i kao koenzim u specijalizovanom putu prenosa elektrona u životinjskom tkivu.

Važnu ulogu vitamin K ima i u mineralizaciji kostiju. Zato ga je posebno važno unositi radi boljeg zarastanja povređenih kostiju, radi prevencije i tretiranja osteoporoze. Kod osoba sa osteoporozom iz kostiju izlazi kalcijum, a primećeno je i da je nivo vitamina K umanjen. Međutim, ukoliko se u organizam unese dovoljno vitamina K ovaj gubitak se smanjuje i time se usporava osteoporoza. Može se reći da vitamin K igra ulogu u kalcifikaciji kostiju.

U eksperimentalnim uslovima je utvrđeno da vitamin K3 može da inhibira razne tumore (pre svega tumor dojke, jajnika, debelog creva, stomačni tumor, tumor bubrega i tumor pluća). Delovanje ovog vitamina se može uporediti sa nekim hemoterapijskim sredstvima.

Vitamin K se delimično akumulira u perifernim tkivima, pa nije uvek neophodno da se nalazi u hrani.

Prirodni izvori

Vitamina K1 ima dosta u biljnim uljima (pre svega šafranovo, sojino), zelenom lisnatom povrću, lucerki, ribljem ulju, morskim algama, žumancu i u mekinjama od pšeničnog brašna. Hrana koja sadrži bakteriju iz roda Lactobacillus, kao što su jogurt i kefir su dobri izvori ovog vitamina, obzirom da ove bakterije same proizvode vitamin K.
 

Sadržaj vitamina K u prehrambenim proizvodima

NamirnicaSadržaj vitamina K
(miligrama na 100 grama namirnice)
Spanać4,0 – 6,0
Tikva4,0
Kopriva3,4
Kupus3,4
Lucerka1,7 – 3,4
Alge1,7 – 3,4
Paradajz – zeleni0,8
Šargarepa0,08
Krompir0,08
Šipak – plod0,08
Pšenica0,05
Soja0,02
Mleko0

Poremećaji

Avitaminoza

Sadržaj ovog vitamina, kao i vitamina E u običnim proizvodima ishrane znatno prevazilazi minimalne dnevne potrebe i zbog toga je nedostatak ovog vitamina pri normalnoj ishrani krajnje redak. Osim toga, vitamin K sintetizuju i mikroorganizmi u debelom crevu.

Pri nedostatku vitamina K u organizmu životinja se sintetizuju molekuli protrombina, koji su nesposobni da pravilno vežu jone kalcijuma i time ometaju stvaranje ugruška krvi.

Najčešći uzroci deficita vitamina K su sindromi male apsorpcije masti udruženi sa disfunkcijom pankreasa, oboljenjima bilijarnog trakta, atrofijom crevne sluznice, ili bilo kojim drugim uzrokom steatoreje (masne stolice). Osim toga sterilizacija debelog creva, korišćenjem antibiotika unetih oralnim putem duži vremenski period zbog eliminacije bakterijske flore, uklanja najpouzdaniji izvor vitamina K i može biti uzrok deficitnog stanja kada je unošenje vitamina sa hranom ograničeno i kada je ishrana neadekvatna. Deficit ovog vitamina izazivaju i mineralna ulja, neki lekovi (kao što su fenobarbitol i neki cefalosporinski antibiotici).

Simptomi nedostatka vitamina K u organizmu su masnice po telu. Javlja se celijačna bolest (stomačna bolest koja se odlikuje nadimanjem stomaka), tropske bolesti, kolitis (upala debelog creva). Može se javiti i dijareja.

Hipervitaminoza

Ukoliko se unose prevelike količine ovog vitamina (preko 500 mikrograma dnevno) mogu se javiti neke alergijske reakcije, kao što su osip po koži, svrab i crvenilo kože. Mogu da se jave i problemi sa jetrom, ali oni nisu baš uobičajeni.

Postoji potencijalna toksičnost velikih doza vitamina K, koji može da izazove hemolizu kod novorođenčadi i da pogorša hiperbilirubinemiju.

Preporučene dnevne količine

Za odrasle muškarce se preporučuje unos od 80 mikrograma ovog vitamina dnevno, dok za žene 65 mikrograma dnevno.

Upotreba u medicini

Vitamin K se posebno koristi u dijeti ili se unosi na drugi način u organizam u slučajevima kada je došlo do gubitka veće količine krvi (kao na primer pre i posle operacije). Međutim, pošto je ovaj vitamin nerastvorljiv u vodi, onda je i njegova upotreba u klinikama bila ograničena, sve dok 1943. godine Paladin nije sintetizovao novi preparat vitamina K – vikasol koji je rastvoran u vodi.

Važna terapeutska primena vitamina K je i kao antidot protiv 4-hidroksikumarinskih lekova.

Ovaj vitamin se koristi i radi smanjivanja preteranog menstrualnog odliva.

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